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2019考研英语翻译基础复习技巧:省略词

2018-05-22 15:22:03 来源: 济宁中公教育

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英语中词的省略现象很多。其目的是为了符合英语表达习惯和修辞特点。省略词语决不是可以随意增删词句,而是要必须遵循以下几条原则:

1) 可有可无的,或是多余的。

2) 省略的词义已经体现在上下文中。

阅读时,必须根据上下文找出英语中省略的词语翻译时再根据汉语的习惯进行适当增补。

1.Fighting means killing, and civilized peoples ought to be able to find some way of setting their disputes other than by seeing which side can kill off the greater number of the other side, and then saying that that side which has killed most has won. And not only has won, but, because it has won, has been in the right.

分析:介词短语by seeing which side…前省略了setting their disputes。seeing which side can kill off the greater number of the other side与saying that that side which has killed most has won是介词by后的两个并列成分。

译文:打仗意味着残杀,。文明的民族应该能够找到某种解决争端的方法,而不是通过看哪一方能消灭另一方更多的人,然后说杀人最多的一方获胜来解决争端。胜者不仅胜了,而且还因为胜利而有理。

2. Anything from cosmic rays to radiation to diet may activate a dormant oncogene, but how remains unknown.

分析:这是一个由but连接的并列句。其中第二个分句的主语是一个主语从句。由于该主语从句的主谓宾与第一个分句相同,所以被全部省略。只剩下疑问副词how。

译文:任何东西,从宇宙射线到辐射,以至日常饮食,都可能激活潜伏的致癌基因,但如何激活的,仍然不得而知。

3. Someone traveling alone, if hungry, injured, or ill, often had nowhere to turn expect to the nearest cabin or settlement.

分析:在时间、地点、条件、让步、方式状语从句中,如果从句的主语与主句的主语相同(或为it),而从句的谓语又含有be(包括连系动词be和助动词be),则可以省略“主语+be”

英语中词的省略现象很多。其目的是为了符合英语表达习惯和修辞特点。省略词语决不是可以随意增删词句,而是要必须遵循以下几条原则:

1) 可有可无的,或是多余的。

2) 省略的词义已经体现在上下文中。

阅读时,必须根据上下文找出英语中省略的词语翻译时再根据汉语的习惯进行适当增补。

1.Fighting means killing, and civilized peoples ought to be able to find some way of setting their disputes other than by seeing which side can kill off the greater number of the other side, and then saying that that side which has killed most has won. And not only has won, but, because it has won, has been in the right.

分析:介词短语by seeing which side…前省略了setting their disputes。seeing which side can kill off the greater number of the other side与saying that that side which has killed most has won是介词by后的两个并列成分。

译文:打仗意味着残杀,。文明的民族应该能够找到某种解决争端的方法,而不是通过看哪一方能消灭另一方更多的人,然后说杀人最多的一方获胜来解决争端。胜者不仅胜了,而且还因为胜利而有理。

2. Anything from cosmic rays to radiation to diet may activate a dormant oncogene, but how remains unknown.

分析:这是一个由but连接的并列句。其中第二个分句的主语是一个主语从句。由于该主语从句的主谓宾与第一个分句相同,所以被全部省略。只剩下疑问副词how。

译文:任何东西,从宇宙射线到辐射,以至日常饮食,都可能激活潜伏的致癌基因,但如何激活的,仍然不得而知。

3. Someone traveling alone, if hungry, injured, or ill, often had nowhere to turn expect to the nearest cabin or settlement.

分析:在时间、地点、条件、让步、方式状语从句中,如果从句的主语与主句的主语相同(或为it),而从句的谓语又含有be(包括连系动词be和助动词be),则可以省略“主语+be”

8. You see, dear, I know that the stick-in- the- mud people are doing us a good turn and themselves a bad one by going back to secret trials and executions so soon, and I know that if you who are left stand together steadily and hit hard, you will see great things.

分析:这是并列复合句。主干结构是I know that…and I know that…。两个that 引起两个宾语从句。第一个宾语从句中省略了are doing themselves a bad turn。第二个宾语从句中有一个条件状语从句。

译文:你瞧,亲爱的,我知道那些陷入泥潭的家伙,如此迫不及待地重新使用起秘密审讯和秘密处决的手段,这实际上是在帮我们的忙,而害了他们自己;我还知道,如果你们留下来的人能够坚定地团结一致,给他们以狠狠的打击,你们就会取得伟大的成就。

9. To get a description of direction along the line, we shall call the line on one side of the origin positive, on the other side negative.

分析:“to get…”不定式短语表示目的。on the other side 前面省略了and we shall call the line,后面省略了of the origin。翻译时应把省略的部分补出来。

译文:为了描述这条直线的方向,我们把位于原点一侧的直线叫做正的,而把位于原点另一侧的直线叫做负的。

10. When the media add interpretation and analysis, as they must to do their job fully, strong dislike of the messengers may become intense.

分析:as 引导的从句说明when从句的内容,可以说是从句的从句,翻译时最好放在主句之后,起补充说明作用。句中must 后省略了谓语add interpretation and analysis。

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